We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry analysis to study the temporal patterns of protein expression during RYMV (Rice yellow mottle virus) infection in rice cells of two cultivars: IR64, Oryza sativa indica, susceptible, and Azucena, O. sativa japonica, partially resistant to RYMV. Proteomic analysis of nonstressed and RYMV inoculated cells showed statistically significant changes in the relative levels of 40 IR64 proteins and 24 Azucena proteins. Protein identification using mass spectrometry was attempted for all the differentially regulated proteins. This global analysis detected 32 hypothetical "new" proteins. Nineteen differentially regulated proteins were identified for IR64 cultivar, while 13 were identified for Azucena cultivar, including proteins in three functional categories: metabolism, stress-related proteins, and translation. These data revealed that a number of proteins regulated by abiotic stress response pathway were activated by RYMV in both cultivars (such as salt-induced protein, heat shock proteins (HSPs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and others have functions consistent with the susceptibility or partially resistance trait (such as dehydrin, proteins involved in glycolysis pathway).