A rice nuclear gene, Rf-1, restores the pollen fertility disturbed by the BT-type male sterile cytoplasm, and is widely used for commercial seed production of japonica hybrid varieties. Genomic fragments carrying Rf-1 were identified by conducting chromosome walking and a series of complementation tests. Isolation and analysis of cDNA clones corresponding to the fragments demonstrated that Rf-1 encodes a mitochondrially targeted protein containing 16 repeats of the 35-aa pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif. Sequence analysis revealed that the recessive allele, rf-1, lacks one nucleotide in the putative coding region, presumably resulting in encoding a truncated protein because of a frame shift. Rice Rf-1 is the first restorer gene isolated from cereal crops that has the property of reducing the expression of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-associated mitochondrial gene like many other restorer genes. The present findings may facilitate not only elucidating the mechanisms of male sterility by the BT cytoplasm and its restoration by Rf-1 but also isolating other restorer genes from cereal crops, especially rice.