Definition and interactions of a positive regulatory element of the Arabidopsis INNER NO OUTER promoter

Plant J. 2004 Feb;37(3):426-38. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2003.01971.x.


INNER NO OUTER (INO) expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the incipient and developing outer integument in Arabidopsis ovules. Using deletion analysis of the previously defined INO promoter (P-INO), at least three distinct regions that contribute to the endogenous INO expression pattern were identified. One such positive element, designated POS9, which comprises at least three distinct subelements, was found to include sufficient information to duplicate the INO expression pattern when four or more copies were used in conjunction with a heterologous minimal promoter. While known regulators of INO, including INO, SUPERMAN, BELL1, and AINTEGUMENTA, did not detectably interact with POS9 in yeast one-hybrid assays, two groups of proteins that interact specifically with POS9 were identified in one-hybrid library screens. Members of one group include C2H2 zinc finger motifs. Members of the second group contain a novel, conserved DNA-binding region and were designated the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) proteins on the basis of conserved features of this region. The BPC proteins are nuclear localized and specifically bind in vitro to GA dinucleotide repeats located within POS9. The widespread expression patterns of the BPCs and the large number of GA repeat potential target sequences in the Arabidopsis genome indicate that BPC proteins may affect expression of genes involved in a variety of plant processes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA, Plant
  • Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • DNA, Plant