Background: We have previously shown an increase in intestinal permeability and a corresponding decrease in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the in testines of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) has been implicated in the inflammatory process of CD and its suppression has therapeutic benefit. ZO-1, occludin, and the claudins are key proteins in the TJ.
Hypothesis: TNFalpha disrupts the TJ.
Methods: MDCK cells were incubated with TNFalpha (0-100 ng/ml) for 5 days. Qualitative evaluation of the TJ was done with monoclonal antibody to ZO-1 detected by an immunofluorescence. Duplicate cells were lysed and ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 amount determined by western blot.
Results: Immunofluorescent staining of MDCK cells for ZO-1 showed TJ structural disruption with increasing amount of TNFalpha characterized by fragmented staining of ZO-1. There were no significant differences in quantitation of ZO-1 or occludin in the MDCK cells for all TNFalpha concentrations. There was a significant decrease in the amount of claudin-1 with increasing concentration of TNFalpha.
Conclusions: (1) MDCK TJs are qualitatively disrupted by TNFalpha. (2) This disruption is not because of a decrease in cell number, lack of cell layer confluency, or a decrease in the amount of ZO-1 or occludin. (3) The amount of claudin-1 present in the cell is decreased with increasing amounts of TNFalpha suggesting that the lack of claudin-1 may cause a relocation of ZO-1 away from the TJ. (4) This rearrangement may play a role in the increased intestinal permeability seen in CD and other diseases.