Cell expansion in roots is crucial for the exploration and exploitation of the soil substrate and the plethora of activities that roots engage in. Expansion requires the coordinated activities of many cell processes. Central to this is the control of ion transport during vacuolar growth, which mediates the increase in cell size and the concomitant production of new wall and membrane at the surface of growing cells. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in growth and the control of growth direction. Evidence is accumulating to show that plant hormones also coordinate cell expansion throughout the plant by controlling the activities of growth-regulating DELLA proteins.