Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Mar;7(1):77-97. doi: 10.1017/S1461145703003973. Epub 2004 Jan 21.

Abstract

There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of multiple unrelated pharmacological agents in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) individuals throughout the life-cycle. The available literature indicates the important role of psychopharmacological agents in the reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairments. The literature documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviours of ADHD, but also improves self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function. However, response varied in different age groups and with certain comorbidities. In addition there is a large body of literature documenting the efficacy of atomoxetine which shows improvement in these same domains. More research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments and to further evaluate established therapeutics beyond school-aged Caucasian boys. Further, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment for comorbid ADHD, use of combined medications, and the combination of medication and psychosocial treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / therapeutic use
  • Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology
  • Bupropion / therapeutic use
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / adverse effects
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Clonidine / therapeutic use
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Guanfacine / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Methylphenidate / administration & dosage
  • Methylphenidate / therapeutic use
  • Propylamines / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Propylamines
  • Bupropion
  • Methylphenidate
  • Guanfacine
  • Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
  • Clonidine