Fructosamine, glycated hemoglobin, and dietary carbohydrates

Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Feb;340(1-2):139-47. doi: 10.1016/j.cccn.2003.10.024.


Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), a marker of glycemia in the previous 3 months, was found to be associated with dietary saturated, fat but not with carbohydrates, in recent population surveys. Another nonenzymatically glycated substance in the blood, fructosamine, a marker of glycemia in the previous 3 weeks, is poorly correlated with HbA(1c) in nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study is to compare the correlation of glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine with dietary carbohydrate intake in the same subjects.

Subjects and methods: Seventy-one individuals from a cohort study on diet and cancer entered this study. Serum fructosamine was measured by a standard colorimetric method, and glycated hemoglobin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Diet was measured by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The correlation of fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin with dietary variables, corrected for calories, was evaluated by multiple correlation.

Results: Fructosamine was more strongly correlated with dietary sugar (r=0.26, p=0.05) than HbA(1c) was (r=0.001, p=0.99). Fructosamine was also inversely correlated with energy, and glycated hemoglobin with vitamin C.

Conclusions: Fructosamine appears to be more related to dietary sugar intake than glycated hemoglobin and may be a marker of exposure to dietary carbohydrates, particularly simple sugars, in epidemiological studies.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Fructosamine / blood*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Fructosamine