Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12

Pac Health Dialog. 2002 Sep;9(2):193-202.


This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet*
  • Folic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Food Preferences*
  • Guam
  • Humans
  • Iron / administration & dosage*
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Students / statistics & numerical data
  • Vitamin A / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin E / administration & dosage
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*
  • Zinc / administration & dosage*


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E
  • Folic Acid
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Ascorbic Acid