Effects of the serotonergic anxiolytic buspirone on plasma glucose and glucose-induced hyperglycemia were studied in mice. Buspirone did not affect plasma glucose levels of non-fasted mice, while it increased serum insulin levels. In fasted mice, buspirone significantly reduced glucose-induced hyperglycemia and enhanced insulin release elicited by glucose. This suggests that buspirone enhances insulin release, resulting in inhibition of glucose-induced hyperglycemia. The major metabolite of buspirone, 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP) increased serum insulin levels and induced a slight hypoglycemia in non-fasted mice. 1-PP decreases glucose-induced hyperglycemia and amplifies insulin release elicited by glucose in fasted mice. Since buspirone is mainly metabolized to 1-PP and formation of 1-PP occurs quickly, the inhibitory effect of buspirone on glucose-induced hyperglycemia is likely mediated by 1-PP.