The involvement of several protein kinase pathways in the regulation of apoptosis and cell survival has been analyzed in a wide range of models. This article reviews current understanding of the protein kinases involved in the control of apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. Protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) play important roles in the survival of these leukemic cells. These survival pathways affect proteins involved in the control of apoptosis by altering their expression or function. The elucidation of the signal transduction network involved in the survival of B-CLL cells could provide novel pharmacological targets for the therapy of B-CLL.