Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism after activation by their cognate oxysterol ligands. AKR1-B7 (aldo-keto reductase 1-B7) is expressed in LXR target tissues such as intestine, and because of its known role in detoxifying lipid peroxides, we investigated whether the AKR1-B7 detoxification pathway was regulated by LXRs. Here we show that synthetic LXR agonists increase the accumulation of AKR1-B7 mRNA and protein levels in mouse intestine in wild-type but not lxr(-/-) mice. Regulation of akr1b7 by retinoic X receptor/LXR heterodimers is dependent on three response elements in the proximal murine akr1b7 promoter. Two of these cis-acting elements are specific for regulation by the LXRalpha isoform. In addition, in duodenum of wild-type mice fed a synthetic LXR agonist, we observed an LXR-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrate that akr1b7 is a direct target of LXRs throughout the small intestine, and that LXR activation plays a protective role by decreasing the deleterious effects of lipid peroxides in duodenum. Taken together, these data suggest a new role for LXRs in lipid detoxification.