KSA (Ep-CAM) is highly expressed by colorectal cancers. The safety and immunologic effects of a vaccine consisting of recombinant baculovirus-derived KSA formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) in liposomes and emulsified in mineral oil were evaluated, with and without co-administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Eleven patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received three subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of the vaccine at 4-week intervals. Six patients were randomized to also receive human recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) by subcutaneous injection daily for 4 days with each vaccination. Immunizations with and without rGM-CSF were well tolerated. Seven of the 11 patients developed significant KSA-specific cellular immune responses as assessed by lymphoproliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assays. All nine tested patients developed positive delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. Eight of the 11 patients developed KSA-specific antibody responses. The highest levels of cellular immune responses were observed in patients who received GM-CSF. Immunization with baculovirus-derived KSA formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A in liposomal emulsion is safe and can elicit KSA-specific immune responses. Co-administration of GM-CSF with this formulation is an effective method of generating KSA-specific T-helper (Th) 1-associated cellular immune responses.