The purpose of this study was to examine differences in sexual attitudes and quality of life of White and African-American men who have undergone radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Respondents included 1,112 White and 118 African-American men. Response rates differed by race, with 51% of White men and 28% of African-American men returning the questionnaire assessing demographics, medical history, sexual functioning, attitudes about seeking help for sexual problems, sexual self-schema, and health-related quality of life. African Americans were more likely than Whites to have undergone radiation therapy (p <.0001) and were more likely to indicate that a desire to maintain sexual functioning influenced their treatment choice (p <.0001). African-American men also had more positive attitudes than did White men toward seeking help for sexual problems and were more likely to report seeking past help and intending to seek future help. African-American men reported more problems with sexual desire (p =.0003), although their sexual function scores did not differ significantly from those of Whites. African-American men may be more at risk for distress when prostate cancer treatment causes sexual dysfunction.