Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants and children. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, and assessment of RSV infection in infants and young children. There is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal treatment for children with RSV infection. Bronchodilators, racemic epinephrine, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, RSV-immunoglobulin (RSV-IG), and ribavirin have all been used for treatment of children with RSV infection. A review of current research indicates supportive and symptomatic management should be the mainstay of treatment. Ultimately, prevention of infection through education and immunotherapy is the key to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with RSV bronchiolitis.