Parents caring for a child with a chronic condition must attend to a myriad of day-to-day management responsibilities and activities. This two-part series examines parental roles and responsibilities in detail. Part I will review both the adult and pediatric family caregiving literature. It will also describe four major caregiving responsibilities with associated tasks in both direct and indirect illness-related care, which parents are expected to perform when caring for a child with a chronic condition. These are: (a) managing the illness; (b) identifying, accessing, and coordinating resources; (c) maintaining the family unit; and (d) maintaining self. Part II (to be published in the next issue of Pediatric Nursing) will present a multifaceted list of parent caregiving management responsibilities and associated activities drawn from the literature. Clinical nursing implications associated with caregiver responsibilities and tasks will also be addressed.