Multiple system atrophy

Lancet Neurol. 2004 Feb;3(2):93-103. doi: 10.1016/s1474-4422(03)00662-8.


Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterised clinically by any combination of parkinsonian, autonomic, cerebellar, or pyramidal signs and pathologically by cell loss, gliosis, and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in several CNS structures. Owing to the recent advances in its molecular pathogenesis, MSA has been firmly established as an alpha-synucleinopathy along with other neurodegenerative diseases. In parallel, the clinical recognition of MSA has improved and the recent consensus diagnostic criteria have been widely established in the research community as well as movement disorders clinics. Although the diagnosis of this disorder is largely based on clinical expertise, several investigations have been proposed in the past decade to assist in early differential diagnosis. Symptomatic therapeutic strategies are still limited; however, several candidate neuroprotective agents have entered phase II and phase III clinical trials.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / pathology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple System Atrophy* / diagnosis
  • Multiple System Atrophy* / physiopathology
  • Multiple System Atrophy* / therapy