Use of relaxation-edited one-dimensional and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to improve detection of small metabolites in blood plasma

Anal Biochem. 2004 Feb 15;325(2):260-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2003.10.033.


The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of biological samples, such as blood plasma and tissues, are information rich but data complex owing to superposition of the resonances from a multitude of different chemical entities in multiple-phase compartments, hampering detection and subsequent resonance assignments. To overcome these problems, several spectral-editing NMR experiments are described here, combining spin-relaxation filters (based on T(1), T(rho), and T(2)) with both one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. These techniques enable the separation of NMR resonances based on their relaxation times and allow simplification of the complex spectra. In this paper, the approach is exemplified using a control human blood plasma, which is a complex mixture of proteins, lipoproteins, and small-molecule metabolites. In the case of T(1rho)- and T(2)-edited 2D NMR experiments, a "flip-back" pulse was introduced after the relaxation editing to make the phase cycling of the "relaxation filter" and the 2D NMR part independent, thus enabling easy implementation of the phase-sensitive 2D NMR experiments. These methods also permit much higher receiver gains to be used to reduce digitization error, in particular, for the small resonances, which are sometimes vitally important for metabonomics studies. Both pulse sequences and experimental results are discussed for T(1)-, T(1rho)-, and T(2)-filtered COSY, T(2)-filtered phase-sensitive DQF-COSY, and T(1), T(1rho)-, and T(2)-filtered TOCSY NMR.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Chemical Analysis / instrumentation
  • Blood Chemical Analysis / methods*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / instrumentation
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Plasma / chemistry*
  • Plasma / metabolism