TLR signaling pathways

Semin Immunol. 2004 Feb;16(1):3-9. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2003.10.003.

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been established to play an essential role in the activation of innate immunity by recognizing specific patterns of microbial components. TLR signaling pathways arise from intracytoplasmic TIR domains, which are conserved among all TLRs. Recent accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TIR domain-containing adaptors, such as MyD88, TIRAP, and TRIF, modulate TLR signaling pathways. MyD88 is essential for the induction of inflammatory cytokines triggered by all TLRs. TIRAP is specifically involved in the MyD88-dependent pathway via TLR2 and TLR4, whereas TRIF is implicated in the TLR3- and TLR4-mediated MyD88-independent pathway. Thus, TIR domain-containing adaptors provide specificity of TLR signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport / physiology
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Differentiation / physiology
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Humans
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology
  • Protein Kinases / physiology
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology
  • Proteins / physiology
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology*
  • Receptors, Immunologic / physiology
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases

Substances

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • IRF3 protein, human
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • MYD88 protein, human
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Myd88 protein, mouse
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1
  • TICAM-1 protein, mouse
  • TICAM1 protein, human
  • TIRAP protein, human
  • TLR2 protein, human
  • TLR3 protein, human
  • TLR4 protein, human
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
  • TOLLIP protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Tollip protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • PELI1 protein, human
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Protein Kinases
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • CHUK protein, human
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • IKBKB protein, human
  • IKBKE protein, human