Urinary tract infection and functional bladder sphincter disorders in children

Eur Radiol. 2004 Mar:14 Suppl 4:L101-6. doi: 10.1007/s00330-003-2028-z.


This review article focuses on the frequent association between urinary tract infection and functional bladder sphincter disorders which were distributed by the International Children's Continence Society in two main categories referred to as unstable bladder and dysfunctional voiding. Relevant examinations, including ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, isotopic studies, and urodynamics, are described as well as their main advantages and drawbacks. Emphasis is put on the associated vesicoureteric reflux which should not be considered the central problem in those children. Reflux is induced by distortion of the ureteric meatus, a consequence of a long-standing high pressure in the bladder. Follow-up and treatment should aim to prevent renal damage and to protect the bladder function.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Comorbidity
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • Urinary Incontinence / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Incontinence / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Urination Disorders / diagnosis
  • Urination Disorders / epidemiology
  • Urodynamics
  • Urography / methods