Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis vesicles on coaggregation of Staphylococcus aureus to oral microorganisms

Curr Microbiol. 2003 Dec;47(6):485-91. doi: 10.1007/s00284-003-4069-6.


Vesicles from the outer membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalis have the ability to aggregate a wide range of Streptococcus spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Actinomyces viscosus. We found that in the presence of P. gingivalis vesicles, Staphylococcus aureus coaggregated with Streptococcus spp., and the mycelium-type Candida albicans, but not the yeast type. Autoaggregation of S. aureus in the presence of P. gingivalis vesicles is inhibited by L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-cysteine. Both the methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) strains of S. aureus were able to coaggregate with Streptococcus spp., A. naeslundii, and A. viscosus when they were treated with P. gingivalis vesicles. P. gingivalis vesicle-treated mycelium-type C. albicans coaggregated with S. aureus, but the yeast-type did not. These results indicate that strains of S. aureus, including MRSA, could adhere to oral biofilms in dental plaque on the tooth surface or in the gingival crevice when P. gingivalis is present.

MeSH terms

  • Actinomyces / physiology
  • Arginine / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Adhesion / physiology*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / physiology
  • Cell Membrane Structures / physiology*
  • Cysteine / pharmacology
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology*
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum / physiology
  • Gingiva / microbiology*
  • Lysine / pharmacology
  • Methicillin Resistance
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / physiology*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / ultrastructure
  • Staphylococcus aureus / physiology*
  • Streptococcus / physiology


  • Arginine
  • Lysine
  • Cysteine