The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults

Ann Intern Med. 2004 Feb 3;140(3):167-74. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-3-200402030-00007.

Abstract

Background: The metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Objective: To examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk for chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Patients: Participants 20 years of age or older were studied in the chronic kidney disease (n = 6217) and microalbuminuria (n = 6125) analyses.

Measurements: The metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of the following risk factors: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, elevated glucose level, and abdominal obesity. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g.

Results: The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria in participants with the metabolic syndrome compared with participants without the metabolic syndrome were 2.60 (95% CI, 1.68 to 4.03) and 1.89 (CI, 1.34 to 2.67), respectively. Compared with participants with 0 or 1 component of the metabolic syndrome, participants with 2, 3, 4, and 5 components of chronic kidney disease had multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of 2.21 (CI, 1.16 to 4.24), 3.38 (CI, 1.48 to 7.69), 4.23 (CI, 2.06 to 8.63), and 5.85 (CI, 3.11 to 11.0), respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of microalbuminuria for participants with 3, 4, and 5 components were 1.62 (CI, 1.10 to 2.38), 2.45 (CI, 1.55 to 3.85), and 3.19 (CI, 1.96 to 5.19), respectively.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the metabolic syndrome might be an important factor in the cause of chronic kidney disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria / etiology*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • United States / epidemiology