The genetic structure of seven mainland and island Asian populations of Bombus ignitus was investigated using nine microsatellite markers and the sequences of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. While microsatellite markers showed high genetic variability, no sequence variation was found in the cytb gene fragment analyzed. The number of microsatellite alleles ranged from 9 to 24. Gene diversities per locus per population ranged from 0.378 to 0.992. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and most pairwise F(ST) values showed significant genetic differentiation between mainland and island populations. Cytb sequences data and microsatellite bottleneck tests indicated that almost all populations were subjected to recent bottlenecks. Our results suggest that B. ignitus populations diverged due to recent bottlenecks and geographic isolation.