Complete assignment of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) anthocyanins separated by capillary zone electrophoresis

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Feb;52(2):226-9. doi: 10.1248/cpb.52.226.


Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) mobilities of fifteen anthocyanins in bilberry extract were completely characterized. Four minor anthocyanins in bilberry extract (malvidin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (Mv 3-ara), peonidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (Pn 3-gal), peonidin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (Pn 3-ara), and petunidin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (Pt 3-ara)) that remained unidentified in our previous CZE study were isolated from the bilberry extract, and the chemical structures were assigned by NMR and MS. Their CZE mobilities were then precisely examined together with those of other major anthocyanins in the extract. When the CZE mobilities of the fifteen anthocyanins assigned here were plotted against their molecular weight/numbers of free phenolic group, it was found that separation of anthocyanins by CZE is primarily determined by the type of conjugated sugar present, and secondly by the aglycon structure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / isolation & purification*
  • Electrophoresis, Capillary
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Structure
  • Vaccinium myrtillus / chemistry*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Vaccinium myrtillus extract