Background: To evaluate the clinical outcome after cardiac operations in patients with cirrhosis, a retrospective study was undertaken.
Methods: Between 1989 and 2003, 18 patients with cirrhosis who underwent cardiac operations were identified. Their preoperative status and postoperative clinical results were assessed.
Results: Ten patients were classified as having Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis, 7 as having class B cirrhosis, and 1 as having class C cirrhosis. Fifteen of 18 patients underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, and the remaining 3 patients with class B cirrhosis received coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass. In patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, 60% of those with class A cirrhosis and 100% of those with class B cirrhosis and class C cirrhosis had postoperative major complications, including infection, respiratory failure, renal failure, bleeding, and gastrointestinal disorder. One of 3 patients (33%) with class B cirrhosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass had major complications. The overall postoperative mortality rate was 17%. Hospital mortality of patients with class A cirrhosis, class B cirrhosis, and class C cirrhosis undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass was 0%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. None of 3 patients with class B cirrhosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass died in this study.
Conclusions: Although the incidence of major complications was high, patients with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis tolerated cardiac surgery satisfactorily. Patients with more advanced cirrhosis, however, may not be suitable for elective cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. Although our results are not conclusive, coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass can be an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced cirrhosis requiring surgical revascularization.