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Comparative Study
, 18 (2), 186-200

Conditioned Taste Aversion With Lipopolysaccharide and Peptidoglycan Does Not Activate Cytokine Gene Expression in the Spleen and Hypothalamus of Mice

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Comparative Study

Conditioned Taste Aversion With Lipopolysaccharide and Peptidoglycan Does Not Activate Cytokine Gene Expression in the Spleen and Hypothalamus of Mice

Cécile Mormède et al. Brain Behav Immun.

Abstract

Several reports show that behavioural and physiological components of the acute phase reaction can be conditioned. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain obscure. The underlying assumption that the changes observed in conditioned animals are dependent on a conditioned production of cytokines has never been demonstrated. In the present study, the possibility of conditioning the production of cytokines or molecules implicated in their signalling pathways was tested by submitting mice to conditioned taste aversion with a new saccharin taste paired with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.83 microg/g) or peptidoglycan (PGN, 20 microg/g). After two conditioning sessions, conditioned mice developed a clear aversion to saccharine that was not associated with activation of genes of the cytokine network either at the periphery, or in the hypothalamus, as demonstrated by a macroarray approach and confirmed by real time RT-PCR. In contrast, there was an activation of the genes coding for nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways in the spleen and to a lesser extent in the hypothalamus. This modulation of the NFkappaB and MAPK signalling pathways is interpreted in terms of a possible conditioned sensitisation of the immune system.

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