Proteome analysis is becoming a powerful tool in the functional characterization of plants. Due to the availability of vast nucleotide sequence information and based on the progress achieved in sensitive and rapid protein identification by mass spectrometry, proteome approaches open up new perspectives to analyze the complex functions of model plants and crop species at different levels. In this review, an overview is given on proteome studies performed to analyze whole plants or specific tissues with particular emphasis on important physiological processes such as germination. The chapter on subcellular proteome analysis of plants focuses on the progress achieved for plastids and mitochondria but also mentions the difficulties associated with membrane-bound proteins of these organelles. Separate chapters are dedicated to the challenging analysis of woody plants and to the use of proteome approaches to investigate the interaction of plants with pathogens or with symbiotic organisms. Limitations of current techniques and recent conceptual and technological perspectives for plant proteomics are briefly discussed in the final chapter.