Thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and prolactin at the nexus of physiology, reproduction, and toxicology

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 1;194(3):309-35. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2003.09.016.


A symposium at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology brought together an expert group of endocrinologists to review how non-reproductive hormones can affect the endocrine system. This publication captures the essence of those presentations. Paul Cooke and Denise Holsberger recapitulate the evidence of how thyroid hormones affect male and female reproduction, and reproductive development. Ray Witorsch summarizes the many effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive system. Finally, Paul Sylvester reviews the mechanism of action of prolactin, and reminds us that this ancient hormone has many functions beyond lactation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / biosynthesis
  • Glucocorticoids / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Leydig Cells / metabolism
  • Leydig Cells / physiology
  • Male
  • Pituitary Gland / physiology
  • Prolactin / biosynthesis
  • Prolactin / genetics
  • Prolactin / physiology*
  • Receptors, Prolactin / metabolism
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Testis / physiology
  • Thyroid Hormones / biosynthesis
  • Thyroid Hormones / physiology*
  • Toxicology*


  • Glucocorticoids
  • Receptors, Prolactin
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Prolactin