Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory

Psychol Rep. 2003 Dec;93(3 Pt 2):995-1002. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2003.93.3f.995.


The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Character*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality Development*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Temperament*