Role of MRI in multiple sclerosis II: brain and spinal cord atrophy

Front Biosci. 2004 Jan 1;9:647-64. doi: 10.2741/1262.


A growing body of evidence indicates that irreversible tissue destruction including axonal and neuronal degeneration is a key component of the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique that can be combined with semiautomated or automated computer assisted analysis approaches to detect progressive atrophy of the brain and spinal cord with high sensitivity and reproducibility. The pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) atrophy in MS is unknown but likely represents an epiphenomenon related to the effects of inflammation including chronic demyelination, axonal injury, neuronal loss and Wallerian degeneration. Other factors that may contribute to tissue atrophy include injury to the normal appearing gray and white matter by mechanisms such as loss of growth factors, altered electrical conduction and pathologic iron deposition. Prospective studies have suggested that atrophy in MS is predicted by previous inflammatory activity as measured by overt MRI lesions. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions have shown a particularly strong predictive value in some but not all longitudinal studies of brain atrophy. Brain atrophy has also been related in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to T2-hypointense lesions in deep grey matter, suggesting a link between tissue iron deposition and atrophy. The measurement of brain atrophy seems to be of growing clinical relevance as a biomarker of the MS disease process. Atrophy should now be included as a secondary endpoint in trials of therapies aimed at limiting disease progression. Currently available anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory agents and immunosuppressive treatments, while effective at preventing clinical deterioration, have shown at best partial effects in preventing CNS atrophy. Thus, there is a need to further validate atrophy as an outcome measure and ultimately develop treatment strategies that will protect against the destructive aspects of the disease process. This should in turn lead to better long term neurologic functioning and a better quality of life for patients with MS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atrophy / etiology
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Multiple Sclerosis / complications
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis*
  • Prognosis
  • Spinal Cord / pathology*