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. 1991 Mar;23(1):13-24.
doi: 10.1080/00222895.1991.9941590.

Methodology for Motor Learning: A Paradigm for Kinematic Feedback


Methodology for Motor Learning: A Paradigm for Kinematic Feedback

R A Schmidt et al. J Mot Behav. .


Knowledge of results (KR)--information feedback about goal achievement--has been one of the most extensively examined variables in motor learning. In most natural movement learning situations, however, instructors more common]y provide augmented information regarding various kinematic or kinetic aspects of the movement pattern itself (sometimes termed knowledge of performance, KP). But despite the inherent interest in kinematic feedback, several factors reviewed here have operated to inhibit its study, the most important of which has been the lack of a suitable laboratory task and paradigm. The limitations of earlier paradigms have concerned (a) the use of overly simple motor behaviors, probably to minimize the problems in kinematic measurement, (b) the tendency for the environmental goal or the task to be isomorphic with the kinematic pattern, and (c) thc failure to use transfer or retention tests as measures of learning effects of the feedback manipulations. In this article, we describe our efforts to create a new paradigm for kinematic feedback, the rationale for its development, and the details of its operation. Finally, we provide evidence that the task and paradigm are sensitive to manipulations of kinematic feedback, providing some assurance that the paradigm can potentially answer future research questions about the role of kinematic feedback for learning.

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