Background: Patients with renal failure have an increased susceptibility to infections. We therefore studied the recruitment of monocytes and their expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and CD62L at the site of interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure. Furthermore, we studied if the capacity of monocytes to up-regulate CD11b in interstitial inflammation was determined by the interstitial concentration of chemotactic factors.
Methods: Three intensities of interstitial inflammation (0, intermediate and intense) were established in skin blister chambers. Leukocyte count, CD11b/CD62L expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and blister activity in terms of CD11b mobilization were determined.
Results: The CD62L expression on monocytes was lower in the peripheral circulation in patients with renal failure compared with healthy subjects (P<0.005 and P<0.001). At the site of interstitial inflammation patients had a higher expression of CD62L (intermediate, P<0.05; intense, P<0.005). Furthermore, monocytes from patients had an impaired capacity to mobilize CD11b both in the peripheral circulation (P<0.005) and at the intermediate and intense sites of interstitial inflammation (P<0.005 and P<0.001, respectively) compared with cells collected from healthy subjects. We incubated monocytes in blister exudates, in order to explore whether this phenomenon is caused by cellular factors and/or to the interstitial concentration of chemotactic mediators. The expression of CD11b on monocytes from healthy blood donors incubated in blister exudates from either patients or healthy subjects in vitro was similar. The interstitial concentration of MCP-1 at the site of intermediate inflammation was significantly lower in patients with renal failure compared with the corresponding blister exudate collected from healthy subjects (P<0.05), but no differences were observed at the site of intense inflammation. Furthermore, neutralizing the action of MCP-1 in blister exudates with monoclonal antibodies did not have any impact on monocyte CD11b expression following incubation in blister exudates.
Conclusion: These studies indicate that the impaired capacity of monocytes to mobilize CD11b at the site of inflammation in patients with renal failure is more dependent on constitutive cellular factors than the concentration of CD11b mobilizing factors in the interstitium.