Several improvements to the existing phosphorothioate-based site-directed mutagenesis methodology are reported, and here it is demonstrated that the new procedure is able to produce large deletions, insertions and point mutations rapidly and with very high efficiency. The time required for the polymerization step has been reduced by using T7 DNA polymerase to extend the mutant oligonucleotide primer-template. The reaction produces good yields of double-stranded closed-circular DNA and some partially polymerized template. The reaction was treated with T5 D15 exonuclease to selectively destroy partially polymerized single-stranded phage DNA that may otherwise contribute to an increased background of wild-type transformants. The use of these enzymes greatly facilitates the implementation of the phosphorothioate-based site-directed mutagenesis method by requiring less template DNA and by allowing all the in vitro manipulations to be completed in a day. In its present form the method may easily be automated, enabling large systematic site-directed mutagenesis projects to be undertaken.