Effects of 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-Glc) and DIMBOA-Glc N-O-methylated (HDMBOA-Glc), two compounds present in high concentration in maize, were tested on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum reared on artificial diet. HDMBOA-Glc and DIMBOA-Glc decrease survival of adults with an LD50 of I mM and 5.6 mM, respectively, after 72 hr of feeding. These compounds also decrease the fecundity of the aphids at concentrations of 2 mM and 1 mM, respectively. At concentrations of 2 mM HDMBOA-Glc and 8 mM DIMBOA-Glc in the diet, the average lifetime fecundity of 10 females is near zero. Offspring mortality on diet with 2 mM DIMBOA-Glc is significantly higher than with the control diet. In contrast, HDMBOA-Glc has no effect on the survival of offspring. The possibility that these compounds protect Poaceae against aphids is discussed.