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Review
, 24 (2), 105-12

Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness

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Review

Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness

U H Graneheim et al. Nurse Educ Today.

Abstract

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

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