Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug that causes neurodegenerative effects in humans. In rodents, METH induces apoptosis of striatal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) -containing neurons. This paper provides evidence that METH-induced cell death occurs consequent to interactions of ER stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Specifically, injections of METH are followed by an almost immediate activation of proteases calpain and caspase-12, events consistent with drug-induced ER stress. Involvement of ER stress was further supported by observations of increases in the expression of GRP78/BiP and CHOP. Participation of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the transition of AIF, smac/DIABLO, and cytochrome c from mitochondrial into cytoplasmic fractions. These changes occur before the apoptosome-associated pro-caspase-9 cleavage. Effector caspases-3 and -6, but not -7, were cleaved with the initial time of caspase-3 activation occurring before caspase 9 cleavage; this suggests possible earlier cleavage of caspase-3 by caspase-12. These events preceded proteolysis of the caspase substrates DFF-45, lamin A, and PARP in nuclear fractions. These findings indicate that METH causes neuronal apoptosis in part via cross-talks between ER- and mitochondria-generated processes, which cause activation of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways.