Experimental diabetes was induced in both control and unilaterally nephrectomized male mice by injecting streptozotocin (SZ) (50 mg/kg x 5 days) one week after nephrectomy. The time course changes in the glomerular lesions were examined for up to 12 weeks after completion of the SZ-injection (12WAI). In unilateral nephrectomized and diabetic mice, mild segmental expansion of the mesangial area developed at 4WAI, and it progressed to prominent segmental glomerulosclerosis at 12WAI. In the electron microscopic examination at 12WAI, marked expansion of the mesangial area, segmental thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, fusion of the foot processes of podocytes and a prominent increase in the number of microvilli of capillary endothelial cells were observed. On the other hand, mild to moderate expansion of the glomerular mesangial area was only sporadically found in unnephrectomized diabetic mice at 12WAI. Interestingly, Bowman's capsules of diabetic mice were generally lined with flattened epithelia but those of non-diabetic mice with cuboidal or low columnar epithelia.