Evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Food and Drug Administration

Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Nov;15 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S62-88. doi: 10.1093/clind/15.supplement_1.s62.


These guidelines deal with the evaluation of anti-infective drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Five clinical entities are described: streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. A wide variety of microorganisms are potentially pathogenetic in these diseases; these guidelines focus on the bacterial infections. Inclusion of a patient in a trial of a new drug is based on the clinical entity, with the requirement that a reasonable attempt will be made to establish a specific microbial etiology. Microbiologic evaluation of efficacy requires isolation of the pathogen and testing for in vitro susceptibility. Alternatively, surrogate markers may be used to identify the etiologic agent. The efficacy of new drugs is evaluated with reference to anticipated response rates. Establishment of the microbial etiology of respiratory tract infections is hampered by the presence of "normal flora" of the nose, mouth, and pharynx, which may include asymptomatic carriage of potential pathogens. This issue is addressed for each category of infection described. For example, it is suggested that for initial phase 2 trials of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis tympanocentesis or direct sinus puncture be used to collect exudate for culture. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis also present difficulties in the establishment of microbial etiology. These guidelines suggest that clinical trials employ an active control drug but leave open the possibility of a placebo-controlled trial. For pneumonia, the guidelines suggest the identification and enrollment of patients by the clinical type of pneumonia, e.g., atypical pneumonia or acute bacterial pneumonia, rather than by etiologic organism or according to whether it was community or hospital acquired. For each respiratory infection, the clinical response is judged as cure, failure, or indeterminate. Clinical improvement is not acceptable unless quantitative response measures can be applied.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Infections / drug therapy*
  • Bronchitis / drug therapy
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / standards*
  • Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic / standards
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic / standards
  • Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic / standards
  • Humans
  • Otitis Media / drug therapy
  • Pharyngitis / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia / drug therapy
  • Research Design
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / drug therapy*
  • Sinusitis / drug therapy
  • Streptococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Tonsillitis / drug therapy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents