The recombinant inbred (RI) set of strains, AXB and BXA, derived from C57BL/6J and A/J, originally constructed and maintained at the University of California/San Diego, have been imported into The Jackson Laboratory and are now in the 29th to 59th generation of brother-sister matings. Genetic quality control testing with 45 proviral and 11 biochemical markers previously typed in this RI set indicated that five strains had been genetically contaminated sometime in the past, so these strains have been discarded. The correct and complete strain distribution patterns for 56 genetic markers are reported for the remaining RI strain set, which consists of 31 living strains and 8 extinct strains for which DNA is available. Two additional strains, AXB 12 and BXA 17, are living and may be added to the set pending further tests of genetic purity. The progenitors of this RI set differ in susceptibility to 27 infectious diseases as well as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, cancer, cleft palate, and hydrocephalus. Thus, the AXB and BXA set of RI strains will be useful in the genetic analysis of several complex diseases.