Pharmacokinetics and transplacental passage of imipenem during pregnancy

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Dec;36(12):2652-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.36.12.2652.

Abstract

Imipenem pharmacokinetics were studied in early pregnancy (n = 7; length of gestation, 8.6 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- standard deviation), in late pregnancy (n = 7; length of gestation, 38.7 +/- 1.4 weeks), and in the nonpregnant state (n = 6). A single dose of 500 mg of imipenem-cilastatin (1:1) was administered as a 20-min infusion. Multiple plasma and urine samples, as well as specimens of umbilical plasma and amniotic fluid from the pregnant subjects, were collected at frequent intervals for 8 h. Imipenem concentrations were assayed by specific microbiologic assay. The mean peak concentrations in plasma were 14.7 +/- 4.9, 14.9 +/- 5.2, and 43 +/- 28.3 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and the nonpregnant state, respectively. The volumes of distribution were significantly larger during early pregnancy (0.98 +/- 0.45 liter/kg of body weight, P < 0.005) and late pregnancy (0.59 +/- 0.19 liter/kg, P < 0.05) than in the nonpregnant state (0.33 +/- 0.10 liter/kg), and total clearances from plasma were faster in early pregnancy (12.7 +/- 7.8 ml min-1 kg-1, P < 0.05) and late pregnancy (10.7 +/- 4.6 ml min-1 kg-1, P < 0.05) than in the nonpregnant state (5.77 +/- 1.19 ml min-1 kg-1). The mean concentrations in amniotic fluid were 0.07 +/- 0.01 and 0.72 +/- 0.85 micrograms/ml in early and late pregnancy. The mean umbilical venous and arterial drug concentrations were 1.72 +/- 1.22 and 1.64 +/- 1.22 micrograms/ml. The feto-maternal ratio at the time of cesarean section was 0.33 +/- 0.12. These results indicate that an adjustment of doses of imipenem may be required when treating pregnant women because of considerable changes in imipenem pharmacokinetics during pregnancy.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amniotic Fluid / metabolism
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Imipenem / blood
  • Imipenem / pharmacokinetics*
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange
  • Placenta / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy / metabolism*

Substances

  • Imipenem