A study was made of the nephropathy in canine leishmaniasis produced in ten adult dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Renal function analyses were performed (uraemia, creatinaemia, plasma proteins, biochemistry and urinary sediment), the humoral immune response (fluorescent antibodies and levels of serum IgG, IgM and IgA) was assessed and histopathological studies were carried out. Correlation of the results showed acute renal insufficiency which was reversible in two animals (endotheliomesangial glomerulonephritis) and irreversible in four cases corresponding to glomerulonephritis in its Type I and Type II proliferative forms; extensive increase in the glomerular basal membrane, proliferation of mesangial cells and growth of the mesangial matrix were observed, as was a widespread incidence of immune complex deposits. Two animals showed chronic renal insufficiency. Lack of renal changes (minimal-changes glomerulonephritis) in two dogs was accounted for in one animal by an almost complete absence of symptoms and in the other by chronic viscerocutaneous symptoms; neither showed more than a slight immunoglobulin response.