We report characterization of SUPERROOT1 (SUR1) as the C-S lyase in glucosinolate biosynthesis. This is evidenced by selective metabolite profiling of sur1, which is completely devoid of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates. Furthermore, following in vivo feeding with radiolabeled p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to the sur1 mutant, the corresponding C-S lyase substrate accumulated. C-S lyase activity of recombinant SUR1 heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli was demonstrated using the C-S lyase substrate djenkolic acid. The abolishment of glucosinolates in sur1 indicates that the SUR1 function is not redundant and thus SUR1 constitutes a single gene family. This suggests that the "high-auxin" phenotype of sur1 is caused by accumulation of endogenous C-S lyase substrates as well as aldoximes, including indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) that is channeled into the main auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Thereby, the cause of the "high-auxin" phenotype of sur1 mutant resembles that of two other "high-auxin" mutants, superroot2 (sur2) and yucca1. Our findings provide important insight to the critical role IAOx plays in auxin homeostasis as a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism, and define a framework for further dissection of auxin biosynthesis.