Modeling the evolution of the human mitochondrial genome

Math Biosci. 1992 Dec;112(2):319-35. doi: 10.1016/0025-5564(92)90030-z.


Mitochondrial DNA data have been used extensively to study evolution and early human origins. These applications require estimates of the rate at which nucleotide substitutions occur in the DNA sequence. We consider the problem of estimating substitution rates in the presence of site-to-site rate variation. A coalescent model is presented that allows for different substitution rates for purines and pyrimidines, as well as more detailed models that allow fast and slow rates within each of the purine and pyrimidine classes. A method for estimating such rates is presented. Even for these simple models of site heterogeneity, there are, typically, insufficient data to obtain reliable estimates of site-specific substitution rates. However, estimates of the average rate across all sites appear to be relatively stable even in the presence of site heterogeneity. Simulations of models with site-to-site variation in mutation rate show that hypervariable sites can produce peaks in the pairwise difference curves that have previously been attributed to population dynamics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Biological Evolution
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Genome, Human
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic
  • Models, Statistical
  • Mutation


  • DNA, Mitochondrial