Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce low molecular weight, hydrophobic substances which inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive organisms. The active substances have been purified from a culture of P. aeruginosa and characterized as a mixture of 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide and its homologues. The alkyl-hydroxyquinolines (derived through reduction of the N-oxide) were also produced by P. aeruginosa cultures but, in general, were less active against S. aureus. 2-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline was identified in a sample of human bronchial secretions from a patient with cystic fibrosis who was heavily colonized with P. aeruginosa. Production of antibacterial alkyl-hydroxyquinoline N-oxides in human lung may explain the observation that the presence of P. aeruginosa in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is correlated with the absence of S. aureus.