The effects of cytidine (5') diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on learning and memory were studied using conditioned reflex methods for passive avoidance and active avoidance with punishment reinforcement (step-through, step-down, shuttle box and maze), for active avoidance with alimentary reinforcement (staircase maze), and the Morris water maze. The majority of experiments involved comparative studies of the nootropic drugs meclofenoxate and/or piracetam. CDP-choline was administered orally, in some of the experiments also intraperitoneally, at doses of 10-500 mg/kg body weight once or twice daily for 5 or 7 days. In separate cases only single doses were administered. Trainings started one hour after the last dose of the drugs. Retention tests were given 3 h, 24 h, 7 days or 10 days after training. The results obtained with the different methods document CDP-choline's ability to improve learning and memory in rats and mice. No essential differences in the effects of CDP-choline were established upon oral and intraperitoneal administration of the drug. The learning- and memory-facilitating effects of CDP-choline were similar to those of meclofenoxate and piracetam. The results of the present study permit us to define CDP-choline as a substance capable of improving cognitive levels.