Chemical modifications of the potent A2 adenosine receptor agonist 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (7, 2-HA) at the 5'-position have been carried out to find more potent and selective A2 agonists. These analogues were evaluated for adenosine A1 and A2 receptor binding affinity in rat brain tissues and antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Among the series of compounds, 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-5'-N-cyclopropyluronamide (16d) had the most potent affinity to the A2 receptor with a Ki of 2.6 nM, which is essentially the same as that of the parent agonist, 2-HA. However, the most selective agonist for the A2 receptor was 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (16b) with a Ki of 11 nM and a 162-fold selectivity. The N-alkyl substituents of 5'-uronamide derivatives did not seem to potentiate the A2 binding affinity but drastically reduced the A1 affinity compared with the parent 2-HA. Therefore, the A1/A2 selectivity was consequently increased. Other 5'-deoxy-5'-substituted derivatives of 2-HA such as the chloro (20), carboxamide (27, 28), sulfonamide (29), urea (30), and thiourea (22) analogues were also prepared. Among these nucleosides, no active compounds with potent or selective affinities to both receptors were found except 20. Although glycosyl conformations and sugar-puckering of these nucleosides were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy, there were no positive correlations between active and inactive agonists. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-5'-uronamide (16a) and 16d had a potent hypotensive effect at ED30 values of 0.18 and 0.17 micrograms/kg, respectively, upon iv administration to anesthetized SHR.