Patients (n = 195) undergoing aortic valve replacement (n = 209) for native or prosthetic valve endocarditis were studied to determine risk factors for death and recurrent endocarditis and also to determine the valve type least likely to be associated with recurrent endocarditis. Ten-year survival was 60%, the highest risk of dying occurring within the first 3 postoperative months. Risk factors for death in this early phase included increased urea concentration, higher New York Heart Association functional class, prosthetic valve endocarditis, infection status (lower in patients with healed endocarditis), longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and nonuse of an allograft valve. In the late phase (beyond 3 months), risk factors included age at operation and Staphylococcus aureus infection (only in New York Heart Association functional class V). Ten years after aortic valve replacement, 79% of valves were free of recurrent endocarditis. The highest risk of recurrence was in the first 4 months. Longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was a weak risk factor for recurrent endocarditis in the early phase, and in the late phase risk factors were S. aureus infection (only in New York Heart Association functional classes III, IV, and V) and the use of now discontinued biologic valves. Allograft aortic valve replacement was shown to be associated with a low and constant risk of recurrent endocarditis, whereas other valve types were associated with a high early risk. The allograft valve should be the preferred replacement device for aortic root infection.