While most occurrences of low-back pain in athletes are self-limited sprains or strains, persistent, chronic, or recurrent symptoms are frequently associated with degenerative lumbar disc disease or spondylolytic stress lesions. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of disc degeneration is higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes; however, it remains unclear whether this correlates with a higher rate of back pain. Although there is little peer-reviewed clinical information on the subject, it is possible that chronic pain from degenerative disc disease that is recalcitrant after intensive and continuous nonoperative care can be successfully treated with interbody fusion in selected athletes. In general, the prevalence of spondylolysis is not higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes, although participation in sports involving repetitive hyperextension maneuvers, such as gymnastics, wrestling, and diving, appears to be associated with disproportionately higher rates of spondylolysis. Nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis results in successful pain relief in approximately 80% of athletes, independent of radiographic evidence of defect healing. In recalcitrant cases, direct surgical repair of the pars interarticularis with internal fixation and bone-grafting can yield high rates of pain relief in competitive athletes and allow a high percentage to return to play. Sacral stress fractures occur almost exclusively in individuals participating in high-level running sports, such as track or marathon. Treatment includes a brief period of limited weight-bearing followed by progressive mobilization, physical therapy, and return to sports in one to two months, when the pain has resolved.