We evaluated the effects of rat anti-mouse IL-17 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Tissue samples were evaluated by standard immunohistochemical procedure. The mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the mice treated with the anti-IL-17 mAb, the body weight was significantly lower, and anal prolapse and colon shortening were apparent. A histological analysis indicated that the anti-IL-17 mAb markedly enhanced the severity of colitis. The mucosal infiltration of CD4-positive helper T cells and CD11b-positive granulocytes-monocytes was increased in the anti-IL-17 mAb-treated mice. Treatment with the anti-IL-17 mAb increased the mucosal expression of mRNAs of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10. Blocking of IL-17 activity in vivo using the anti-IL-17 mAb enhanced the development of DSS-colitis in mice. This suggests an inhibitory role for IL-17 in the development of DSS-colitis.