Resistin is an adipose-derived hormone that has been proposed as a link among obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. In agreement with a role of resistin in insulin resistance, the administration of recombinant resistin led to glucose intolerance in mice and impaired insulin action in rat liver. However, the regulation of resistin expression by physiological conditions, hormones, or agents known to modulate insulin sensitivity does not always support the association between resistin and obesity-induced insulin resistance. In the present study we investigated the effects of leptin administration on adipose resistin expression in insulin-resistant and obese ob/ob mice. We show that the expression of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue is lower in ob/ob than in wild-type control mice, in agreement with the reduced adipocyte resistin mRNA level reported in several models of obesity. Leptin administration in ob/ob mice resulted in improvement of insulin sensitivity concomitant with a decrease in resistin gene expression. The lack of effect of leptin on resistin in db/db mice indicated that the leptin inhibitory action on resistin expression requires the long leptin receptor isoform. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect of leptin on resistin expression was centrally mediated. High-fat feeding in C57BL/6J wild-type mice, which is known to induce the development of obesity and insulin resistance, produced an increase in resistin expression. Interestingly, in both ob/ob and high fat-fed mice we obtained a striking positive correlation between glycemia and resistin gene expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that leptin decreases resistin expression and suggest that resistin may influence glucose homeostasis.