Identification of a functional vitamin D response element in the human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 promoter

Mol Endocrinol. 2004 May;18(5):1109-19. doi: 10.1210/me.2003-0344. Epub 2004 Feb 12.


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] plays a critical role in maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone formation but also exhibits antiproliferative activity on many cancer cells, including prostate cancer. We have shown that the antiproliferative actions of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line are mediated in part by induction of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism involved in 1,25-(OH)2D3 regulation of IGFBP-3 expression and to identify the putative vitamin D response element (VDRE) in the IGFBP-3 promoter. We cloned approximately 6 kb of the IGFBP-3 promoter sequence and demonstrated its responsiveness to 1,25-(OH)2D3 in transactivation assays. Computer analysis identified a putative VDRE between -3296/-3282 containing the direct repeat motif GGTTCA ccg GGTGCA that is 92% identical with the rat 24-hydroxylase distal VDRE. In EMSAs, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) showed strong binding to the putative IGFBP-3 VDRE in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Supershift assays confirmed the presence of VDR in the IGFBP-3 VDRE complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that 1,25-(OH)2D3 recruited the VDR/retinoid X receptor heterodimer to the VDRE site in the natural IGFBP-3 promoter in intact cells. In transactivation assays, the putative VDRE coupled to a heterologous simian virus 40 promoter construct was induced 2-fold by 1,25-(OH)2D3. Mutations in the VDRE resulted in a loss of inducibility confirming the critical hexameric sequence. In conclusion, we have identified a functional VDRE in the distal region of the human IGFBP-3 promoter. The induction of IGFBP-3 by 1,25-(OH)2D3 appears to be directly mediated via VDR interaction with this VDRE.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • COS Cells
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / genetics*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Transcriptional Activation / drug effects
  • Transcriptional Activation / genetics*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vitamin D Response Element / genetics*


  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
  • Calcitriol